The Construction and Application of Healthy Scallop Seedling Technology System for Zhikong Scallop

For a long time the team has conducted the research and development (R&D) of Zhikong scallop on seedling collection technology in natural sea waters and artificial breeding techniques, as well as breeding of the improved varieties, creating a series of key technologies on scallop seedling and breeding of the improved varieties of Zhikong scallop, establishing a healthy scallop seedling technology system in our nation and industrializing it. The main contents are as follows:

1. Zhikong scallop seedling collection technology in natural sea areas
The team has carried out R&D of efficient and practical methods for collecting seedlings, made great breakthroughs on key techniques such as the selection of seedling sea areas, and accurately predicted the seedling season, by established scientific principles. The publicity and application of Zhikong scallop seedling collection technology in natural sea waters has contributed to a total of over 2000 billion seed scallops, promoting the development of the artificial culture of scallops.

2. Zhikong scallop artificial breeding techniques
With the integration of a series of key technologies, including the culture of parent scallops, artificial fertilization, larva breeding, spat attaching, bait production, and prevention and treatment of diseases, the team has completed the system for artificial breeding of scallops, which has laid a solid industrial foundation for the Zhikong scallop culture and pushed the seedling techniques of other marine scallops forward.

3. Breeding technology of Zhikong scallop new species with high yield and stress resistance
Internationally, the team has taken the lead in the construction of scallop genetic linkage maps, carried out the GISH analysis of interspecific hybridization, established the technology of evaluating scallops’ germplasm, developed a new breeding technology with selective breeding generation by generation and gynogenesis induction by distant hybridization as the cores, and established the breeding technology system of scallops. It has developed China's first new high-yield and disease-resistant species of "Penglai Hong," which has guaranteed a quick recovery of the scallop industry, which has long been infested with diseases.

The establishment and application of the technology serves as the foundation for the sound development of the scallop industry and gives rise to the third boom in China’s aquaculture industry. As one of the leading marine culture industries, the scallop industry’s annual output amounts to nearly one million tons, accounting for over 80 percent of the world’s total. The sustainable industrial model has produced obvious benefits. Over 20,000 quality seed scallops are produced in two main provinces, that is, Shandong and Liaoning provinces, creating a direct economic benefit worth 6 billion yuan. Cultures from the two provinces produce a total of 3.63 million mu, with the total output of 5.4802 million tons, worth 35.187 billion yuan, with net incomes of 24.145 billion yuan and over a million job opportunities. Ninety-one papers, with 25 included in SCI, as well as seven books, have been published. Eight authorized patents and two industrial specifications have been established by our team. The implementation of the project brings China’s scallop project research to an internationally-advanced level.

The project has won second prize of the National Award for Scientific and Technological Progress in 2008.